Plasticity of callosal neurons in the contralesional cortex following traumatic brain injury.
Neural Regen Res. 2023 Jun;18(6):1257-1258. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.360167. PMID: 36453402.
|Authors/Editors:||Chovsepian A, Empl L, Bareyre FM.|
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a significant cause of disability worldwide. It creates a vast
array of damaging macro- and microscopic changes in the affected brain area(s), ranging from
neuronal cell death, changes in structural spine integrity and dynamics to axonal injury and overall
neuronal circuit disruption, ultimately leading to functional and cognitive deficits in both humans
and animal models (Nudo, 2013). Several studies in humans and animals have shown
that this loss of function can often be recovered (in part) and compensated for by circuit and cellular
plasticity in the brain (Nudo, 2013), suggesting that the brain possesses an important potential for
innate plasticity and can thus mediate some form of recovery of function. In this regard, studies have
often implicated the intact contralesional cortex as an important player in recovery processes after
unilateral brain injury, indicating that disrupted but intact neurons are plastic and could be able to
compensate for the loss of function of the injured areas and the neighboring penumbra.
What mechanisms, and more precisely which neuronal populations, facilitate such a degree
of plastic changes in the brain is still not fully understood. In this perspective, we will briefly
recapitulate the current understanding on the role of the contralesional cortex following brain injury
and reveal which neuronal cell types adapt in response to injury.