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Innate Immune Pathways Promote Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Recruitment to the Injury Site in Adult Zebrafish Brain.

Cells. 2022 Feb 2;11(3):520. doi: 10.3390/cells11030520. PMID: 35159329; PMCID: PMC8834209.

Authors/Editors: Sanchez-Gonzalez R, Koupourtidou C, Lepko T, Zambusi A, Novoselc KT, Durovic T, Aschenbroich S, Schwarz V, Breunig CT, Straka H, Huttner HB, Irmler M, Beckers J, Wurst W, Zwergal A, Schauer T, Straub T, Czopka T, Trümbach D, Götz M, Stricker SH, Ninkovic J.
Publication Date: 2022

Abstract

The oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs) are at the front of the glial reaction to the traumatic brain injury. However, regulatory pathways steering the OPC reaction as well as the role of reactive OPCs remain largely unknown. Here, we compared a long-lasting, exacerbated reaction of OPCs to the adult zebrafish brain injury with a timely restricted OPC activation to identify the specific molecular mechanisms regulating OPC reactivity and their contribution to regeneration. We demonstrated that the influx of the cerebrospinal fluid into the brain parenchyma after injury simultaneously activates the toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2) and the chemokine receptor 3 (Cxcr3) innate immunity pathways, leading to increased OPC proliferation and thereby exacerbated glial reactivity. These pathways were critical for long-lasting OPC accumulation even after the ablation of microglia and infiltrating monocytes. Importantly, interference with the Tlr1/2 and Cxcr3 pathways after injury alleviated reactive gliosis, increased new neuron recruitment, and improved tissue restoration.

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