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CNS remyelination and inflammation: From basic mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities.

Neuron. 2022 Oct 6:S0896-6273(22)00862-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2022.09.023. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 36228613.

Authors/Editors: Franklin RJM, Simons M.
Publication Date: 2022

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Abstract

Remyelination, the myelin regenerative response that follows demyelination, restores saltatory conduction and function and sustains axon health. Its declining efficiency with disease progression in the chronic autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS) contributes to the currently untreatable progressive phase of the disease. Although some of the bona fide myelin regenerative medicine clinical trials have succeeded in demonstrating proof-of-principle, none of these compounds have yet proceeded toward approval. There therefore remains a need to increase our understanding of the fundamental biology of remyelination so that existing targets can be refined and new ones discovered. Here, we review the role of inflammation, in particular innate immunity, in remyelination, describing its many and complex facets and discussing how our evolving understanding can be harnessed to translational goals.

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