Characterizing the Clinical Features and Atrophy Patterns of MAPT-Related Frontotemporal Dementia With Disease Progression Modeling. Neurology.
2021 Jun 22:10.1212/WNL.0000000000012410. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000012410. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34158384.
|Authors/Editors:||Young AL, Bocchetta M, Russell LL, Convery RS, Peakman G, Todd E, Cash DM, Greaves CV, van Swieten J, Jiskoot L, Seelaar H, Moreno F, Sanchez-Valle R, Borroni B, Laforce R Jr, Masellis M, Tartaglia MC, Graff C, Galimberti D, Rowe JB, Finger E, Synofzik M, Vandenberghe R, de Mendonça A, Tagliavini F, Santana I, Ducharme S, Butler C, Gerhard A, Levin J, Danek A, Otto M, Sorbi S, Williams SC, Alexander DC, Rohrer JD; Genetic FTD Initiative (GENFI).|
Background and objective: Mutations in the MAPT gene cause frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Most previous studies investigating the neuroanatomical signature of MAPT mutations have grouped all different mutations together and shown an association with focal atrophy of the temporal lobe. However, the variability in atrophy patterns between each particular MAPT mutation is less well characterised. We aimed to investigate whether there were distinct groups of MAPT mutation carriers based on their neuroanatomical signature.
Methods: We applied Subtype and Stage Inference (SuStaIn), an unsupervised machine learning technique that identifies groups of individuals with distinct progression patterns, to characterise patterns of regional atrophy in MAPT-associated FTD within the Genetic FTD Initiative (GENFI) cohort study.
Results: 82 MAPT mutation carriers were analysed, the majority of whom had P301L, IVS10+16 or R406W mutations, along with 48 healthy non-carriers. SuStaIn identified two groups of MAPT mutation carriers with distinct atrophy patterns: a 'temporal' subtype in which atrophy was most prominent in the hippocampus, amygdala, temporal cortex and insula, and a 'frontotemporal' subtype in which atrophy was more localised to the lateral temporal lobe and anterior insula, as well as the orbitofrontal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate. There was a one-to-one mapping between IVS10+16 and R406W mutations and the temporal subtype, and a near one-to-one mapping between P301L mutations and the frontotemporal subtype. There were differences in clinical symptoms and neuropsychological test scores between subtypes: the temporal subtype was associated with amnestic symptoms, whereas the frontotemporal subtype was associated with executive dysfunction.
Discussion: Our results demonstrate that different MAPT mutations give rise to distinct atrophy patterns and clinical phenotype, providing insights into the underlying disease biology, and potential utility for patient stratification in therapeutic trials.