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Longitudinal Accumulation of Cerebral Microhemorrhages in Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Disease.

Neurology. 2021 Jan 25:10.1212/WNL.0000000000011542. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000011542. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33495373.

Authors/Editors: Joseph-Mathurin N, Wang G, Kantarci K, Jack CR Jr, McDade E, Hassenstab J, Blazey TM, Gordon BA, Su Y, Chen G, Massoumzadeh P, Hornbeck RC, Allegri RF, Ances BM, Berman SB, Brickman AM, Brooks WS, Cash DM, Chhatwal JP, Chui HC, Correia S, Cruchaga C, Farlow MR, Fox NC, Fulham M, Ghetti B, Graff-Radford NR, Johnson KA, Karch CM, Laske C, Lee AKW, Levin J, Masters CL, Noble JM, O'Connor A, Perrin RJ, Preboske GM, Ringman JM, Rowe CC, Salloway S, Saykin AJ, Schofield PR, Shimada H, Shoji M, Suzuki K, Villemagne VL, Xiong C, Yakushev I, Morris JC, Bateman RJ, Benzinger TLS; Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network.
Publication Date: 2021



Objective: To investigate the inherent clinical risks associated with the presence of cerebral microhemorrhages (CMHs) or cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) and characterize individuals at high risk for developing hemorrhagic amyloid-related imaging abnormality (ARIA-H), we evaluated longitudinally families affected by dominantly inherited Alzheimer disease (DIAD).

Methods: Mutation carriers (n=310) and non-carriers (n=201) underwent neuroimaging, including gradient echo MR sequences to detect CMHs, neuropsychological, and clinical assessments. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses evaluated relationships between CMHs and neuroimaging and clinical marker of disease.

Results: Three percent of non-carriers and eight percent of carriers developed CMHs primarily located in lobar areas. Carriers with CMHs were older, had higher diastolic blood pressure and Hachinski ischemic scores, and more clinical, cognitive, and motor impairments than those without CMH. APOE-ε4 status was not associated with the prevalence or incidence of CMHs. Prevalent or incident CMHs predicted faster change in clinical dementia rating although not composite cognitive measure, cortical thickness, hippocampal volume, or white matter lesions. Critically, the presence of two or more CMHs was associated with a significant risk for development of additional CMHs over time (8.95±10.04 per year).

Conclusion: Our study highlights factors associated with the development of CMHs in individuals with DIAD. CMHs are a part of the underlying disease process in DIAD and are significantly associated with dementia. This highlights that in participants in treatment trials exposed to drugs, which carry the risk of ARIA-H as a complication, it may be challenging to separate natural incidence of CMHs from drug related CMHs.


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