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Frequency of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies in a large cohort of neurological patients.

Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin. 2021 Jun 25;7(2):20552173211022767. doi: 10.1177/20552173211022767. PMID: 34262784; PMCID: PMC8246507.

Authors/Editors: Held F, Kalluri SR, Berthele A, Klein AK, Reindl M, Hemmer B.
Publication Date: 2021

Abstract

Background: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody disease (MOG-AD) is recognized as a distinct nosological entity. IgG antibodies against MOG (MOG-Ab) overlap with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) phenotype in adults. However, an increasing number of clinical phenotypes have been reported to be associated with MOG-Ab.

Objective: To investigate the seroprevalence of MOG-Ab under consideration of demographics, disease entities and time course in a large cohort of unselected neurological patients.

Methods: Blood samples of 2.107 consecutive adult neurologic patients admitted to our department between 2016-2017 were tested for MOG-Ab using a cell-based assay. MOG-Ab persistence was analyzed in follow-up samples. External validation was performed in two independent laboratories.

Results: We found MOG-Ab in 25 of 2.107 (1.2%) patients. High antibody ratios were mostly associated with NMOSD and MOG-AD phenotype (5/25). Low ratios occurred in a wide range of neurological diseases, predominantly in other demyelinating CNS diseases (5/25) and stroke (6/25). MOG-Ab persistence over time was not confined to NMOSD and MOG-AD phenotype.

Conclusion: The present study demonstrates the occurrence of MOG-Ab in a wide range of neurological diseases. Only high MOG-Ab ratios were associated with a defined clinical phenotype, but low MOG-Ab ratios were not. The diagnostic value of low MOG-Ab is thus highly limited.

Keywords: MOG-AD; Myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein; acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; autoantibody; neuromyelitis optica spectrum disoreders.

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