Filling the Gaps - A Call for Comprehensive Analysis of Extracellular Matrix of the Glial Scar in Region- and Injury-Specific Contexts.
Front Cell Neurosci. 2020 Feb 20;14:32. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2020.00032. eCollection 2020.
|Authors/Editors:||Kjell J, Götz M.|
Central nervous system (CNS) injury results in chronic scar formation that interferes with function and inhibits repair. Extracellular matrix (ECM) is prominent in the scar and potently regulates cell behavior. However, comprehensive information about the ECM proteome is largely lacking, and region- as well as injury-specific differences are often not taken into account. These aspects are the focus of our perspective on injury and scar formation. To highlight the importance of such comprehensive proteome analysis we include data obtained with novel analysis tools of the ECM composition in the scar and show the contribution of monocytes to the ECM composition after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Monocyte invasion was reduced using the CCR2-/- mouse line and step-wise de-cellularization and proteomics allowed determining monocyte-dependent ECM composition and architecture of the glial scar. We find significant reduction in the ECM proteins Tgm1, Itih (1,2, and 3), and Ftl in the absence of monocyte invasion. We also describe the scar ECM comprising zones with distinctive composition and show a subacute signature upon comparison to proteome obtained at earlier times after TBI. These results are discussed in light of injury-, region- and time-specific regulation of scar formation highlighting the urgent need to differentiate injury conditions and CNS-regions using comprehensive ECM analysis.