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Nuclear Import Receptors Directly Bind to Arginine-Rich Dipeptide Repeat Proteins and Suppress Their Pathological Interactions.

Cell Rep. 2020 Dec 22;33(12):108538. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108538. PMID: 33357437.

Authors/Editors: Hutten S, Usluer S, Bourgeois B, Simonetti F, Odeh HM, Fare CM, Czuppa M, Hruska-Plochan M, Hofweber M, Polymenidou M, Shorter J, Edbauer D, Madl T, Dormann D.
Publication Date: 2020

Abstract

Nuclear import receptors, also called importins, mediate nuclear import of proteins and chaperone aggregation-prone cargoes (e.g., neurodegeneration-linked RNA-binding proteins [RBPs]) in the cytoplasm. Importins were identified as modulators of cellular toxicity elicited by arginine-rich dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs), an aberrant protein species found in C9orf72-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Mechanistically, the link between importins and arginine-rich DPRs remains unclear. Here, we show that arginine-rich DPRs (poly-GR and poly-PR) bind directly to multiple importins and, in excess, promote their insolubility and condensation. In cells, poly-GR impairs Impa/b-mediated nuclear import, including import of TDP-43, an RBP that aggregates in C9orf72-ALS/FTD patients. Arginine-rich DPRs promote phase separation and insolubility of TDP-43 in vitro and in cells, and this pathological interaction is suppressed by elevating importin concentrations. Our findings suggest that importins can decrease toxicity of arginine-rich DPRs by suppressing their pathological interactions.

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