The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) Promoter Polymorphisms (rs3063368, rs755622) Predict Acute Kidney Injury and Death after Cardiac Surgery.
J Clin Med. 2020 Sep 11;9(9):E2936. doi: 10.3390/jcm9092936. PMID: 32932965.
|Authors/Editors:||Averdunk L, Bernhagen J, Fehnle K, Surowy H, Lüdecke HJ, Mucha S, Meybohm P, Wieczorek D, Leng L, Marx G, Leaf DE, Zarbock A, Zacharowski K, On Behalf Of The RIPHeart Study Collaborators, Bucala R, Stoppe C.|
Background: Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) is highly elevated after cardiac surgery and impacts the postoperative inflammation. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the polymorphisms CATT5-7 (rs5844572/rs3063368,"-794") and G>C single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs755622,-173) in the MIF gene promoter are related to postoperative outcome.
Methods: In 1116 patients undergoing cardiac surgery, the MIF gene polymorphisms were analyzed and serum MIF was measured by ELISA in 100 patients.
Results: Patients with at least one extended repeat allele (CATT7) had a significantly higher risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) compared to others (23% vs. 13%; OR 2.01 (1.40-2.88), p = 0.0001). Carriers of CATT7 were also at higher risk of death (1.8% vs. 0.4%; OR 5.12 (0.99-33.14), p = 0.026). The GC genotype was associated with AKI (20% vs. GG/CC:13%, OR 1.71 (1.20-2.43), p = 0.003). Multivariate analyses identified CATT7 predictive for AKI (OR 2.13 (1.46-3.09), p < 0.001) and death (OR 5.58 (1.29-24.04), p = 0.021). CATT7 was associated with higher serum MIF before surgery (79.2 vs. 50.4 ng/mL, p = 0.008).
Conclusion: The CATT7 allele associates with a higher risk of AKI and death after cardiac surgery, which might be related to chronically elevated serum MIF. Polymorphisms in the MIF gene may constitute a predisposition for postoperative complications and the assessment may improve risk stratification and therapeutic guidance.
Keywords: (cardiac) surgery; acute kidney injury; clinical studies; genetic polymorphisms; inflammatory cytokines; risk prediction.