Quantifying blood-brain barrier leakage in small vessel disease: Review and consensus recommendations.
Alzheimers Dement. 2019 Apr 25. pii: S1552-5260(19)30045-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jalz.2019.01.013. [Epub ahead of print]
|Authors/Editors:||Thrippleton MJ, Backes WH, Sourbron S, Ingrisch M, van Osch MJP, Dichgans M, Fazekas F, Ropele S, Frayne R, van Oostenbrugge RJ, Smith EE, Wardlaw JM.|
Cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) comprises pathological processes of the small vessels in the brain that may manifest clinically as stroke, cognitive impairment, dementia, or gait disturbance. It is generally accepted that endothelial dysfunction, including blood-brain barrier (BBB) failure, is pivotal in the pathophysiology. Recent years have seen increasing use of imaging, primarily dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, to assess BBB leakage, but there is considerable variability in the approaches and findings reported in the literature. Although dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is well established, challenges emerge in cSVD because of the subtle nature of BBB impairment. The purpose of this work, authored by members of the HARNESS Initiative, is to provide an in-depth review and position statement on magnetic resonance imaging measurement of subtle BBB leakage in clinical research studies, with aspects requiring further research identified. We further aim to provide information and consensus recommendations for new investigators wishing to study BBB failure in cSVD and dementia.