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Generation of aggregation prone N-terminally truncated amyloid β peptides by meprin β depends on the sequence specificity at the cleavage site

Mol Neurodegener. 2016 Feb 19;11(1):19. doi: 10.1186/s13024-016-0084-5.

Authors/Editors: Schönherr C, Bien J, Isbert S, Wichert R, Prox J, Altmeppen H, Kumar S, Walter J, Lichtenthaler SF, Weggen S, Glatzel M, Becker-Pauly C, Pietrzik CU.
Publication Date: 2016

Abstract

BACKGROUND:
The metalloprotease meprin β cleaves the Alzheimer's Disease (AD) relevant amyloid precursor protein (APP) as a β-secretase reminiscent of BACE-1, however, predominantly generating N-terminally truncated Aβ2-x variants.

RESULTS:
Herein, we observed increased endogenous sAPPα levels in the brains of meprin β knock-out (ko) mice compared to wild-type controls. We further analyzed the cellular interaction of APP and meprin β and found that cleavage of APP by meprin β occurs prior to endocytosis. The N-terminally truncated Aβ2-40 variant shows increased aggregation propensity compared to Aβ1-40 and acts even as a seed for Aβ1-40 aggregation. Additionally, we observed that different APP mutants affect the catalytic properties of meprin β and that, interestingly, meprin β is unable to generate N-terminally truncated Aβ peptides from Swedish mutant APP (APPswe).

CONCLUSION:
Concluding, we propose that meprin β may be involved in the generation of N-terminally truncated Aβ2-x peptides of APP, but acts independently from BACE-1.

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